Conception Pregnancy And Birth Pdf

conception pregnancy and birth pdf

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Published: 12.05.2021

Development happens quickly during the prenatal period , which is the time between conception and birth. This period is generally divided into three stages: the germinal stage, the embryonic stage, and the fetal stage. The two-week period after conception is called the germinal stage.

Development

Pregnancy is a rollercoaster of shifting hormone levels which can have numerous effects. This graphic looks at six key hormones during pregnancy, their roles in the development of the baby, and other effects. Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG hCG is an important hormone in early pregnancy.

The corpus luteum is a temporary structure in the ovaries which produces other key hormones during early pregnancy. Its concentration increases from conception and peaks 8—11 weeks after. For the first few days after conception its levels are too low to detect with pregnancy tests, but after implantation its levels double every 48 hours. Progesterone During the early weeks of pregnancy, the corpus luteum produces progesterone.

After weeks, the placenta takes over. Progesterone stimulates growth of the blood vessels that supply the womb lining.

It also stimulates the lining to release nutrients, providing nourishment for the early embryo. Additionally, progesterone inhibits contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus so that it grows as the baby does.

Progesterone levels continue to rise as the pregnancy progresses. Along with oestrogen, it promotes the growth of breast tissue and milk duct development.

Progesterone prevents lactations during pregnancy, which only starts when levels drop after birth. This hormone also plays an important role in preparation for birth: it strengthens the pelvic wall muscles required for labour. Oestrogen As with progesterone, the corpus luteum produces oestrogen in the early stages of pregnancy before the placenta takes over.

Oestrogen is actually a collective group of similar compounds: oestrone, oestradiol, and oestriol. Oestrogen helps the uterus grow and maintains its lining. It supports foetal development, including the development of organs and bodily systems. It also activates and regulates the production of other important pregnancy hormones. Prolactin Prolactin is the main hormone needed to trigger the production of breast milk.

It enlarges the mammary glands to prepare for this though as previously noted progesterone levels prevent lactation until the baby is born.

Prolactin has other roles unrelated to milk production. Relaxin Relaxin levels are highest during the first trimester of pregnancy, but it is present throughout.

It has several roles, including prohibiting contraction of the uterine muscles to prevent premature birth. It relaxes blood vessels, increasing blood flow to the placenta and kidneys. It relaxes joints in the pelvis and softens and widens the cervix to make delivery of the baby easier. Oxytocin Oxytocin only appears in significant amounts towards the end of pregnancy, though it is present in lower amounts before this.

Its levels rise when labour starts, triggering contractions. Enjoyed this post? Close Menu Home. Infographics Index. IYPT Elements. Click to enlarge. Like Loading

Six key pregnancy hormones and their roles

Read terms. Full-text document published concurrently in the January issue of Fertility and Sterility. ABSTRACT: The goal of prepregnancy care is to reduce the risk of adverse health effects for the woman, fetus, and neonate by working with the woman to optimize health, address modifiable risk factors, and provide education about healthy pregnancy. All those planning to initiate a pregnancy should be counseled, including heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and gender nonconforming individuals. Because health status and risk factors can change over time, prepregnancy counseling should occur several times during a woman's reproductive lifespan, increasing her opportunity for education and potentially maximizing her reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Many chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, psychiatric illness, and thyroid disease have implications for pregnancy outcomes and should be optimally managed before pregnancy. Counseling patients about optimal intervals between pregnancies may be helpful to reduce future complications.

Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, each lasting for approximately 3 months. Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Associated terms for pregnancy are gravid and parous. Gravidus and gravid come from the Latin word meaning "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida. Similarly, the term parity is used for the number of times that a female carries a pregnancy to a viable stage. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida.

Critical Periods of Development

Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers. It is important to make the distinction between two terms that overlap in practice, namely, growth and development. Growth refers simply to the increase in body size, both weight and stature, while development represents changes in parameters that may or may not depend on growth, involving a very complex series of factors: genetic, epigenetic, nutritional, environmental and lifestyle, amongst others HURLEY, ; STANNER et al.

This is called her background risk. This fact sheet talks about the critical periods of development and types of birth defects that can result from exposures at different stages of pregnancy. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your health care provider.

Conception, Pregnancy and HIV

Postpartum depression PPD has been identified as a recognized public health problem that may adversely affect mothers, infants, and family units. Recent studies have identified risk factors for PPD in Wester Content type: Research article.

Pregnancy and Childbirth Services

Pregnancy is a rollercoaster of shifting hormone levels which can have numerous effects. This graphic looks at six key hormones during pregnancy, their roles in the development of the baby, and other effects. Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG hCG is an important hormone in early pregnancy.

Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Pregnancy begins with the fertilization of the ovum and its subsequent implantation into the uterine wall. The duration of pregnancy is counted in weeks of gestation from the first day of the last menstrual period and on average lasts 40 weeks. Presumptive signs of pregnancy include amenorrhea , nausea and vomiting , and breast enlargement and tenderness. Preconception counseling assists in the planning of pregnancy through education and risk assessment to help ensure best possible outcomes.


Prematurity and Low Birth Weight. Newborn Intensive Care. Major Congenital Anomalies. Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth.


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Your pregnancy and the birth of your child may be among the most memorable events of your life. In the Sutter Health network, pregnancy and childbirth care teams are with you every step of the way, from hearing that first fetal heartbeat to meeting your baby for the first time. Find your nearest birthing center and sign up for an in-person tour. With more than obstetricians and nearly specialists in high-risk pregnancy and neonatal care, the Sutter Health network of experts provides compassionate, family-centered support during every stage of your pregnancy and birth. In alone, our birth specialists helped deliver more than 40, babies across Northern California. Delivering in one of our hospitals? Get ready for baby by filling out your labor and birth preference form PDF.

HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or during infancy from breastfeeding. There are very effective ways of preventing mother-to-child transmission, especially if HIV is diagnosed before or early in the pregnancy and if the mother receives the proper care and medications throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and afterward. The risk of transmission during and after pregnancy is lowest if the mother is stable on HIV medications, with an undetectable viral load throughout her pregnancy. Women living with HIV in the U. In general the best advice is that having children can be very safe if you or your partner are HIV-positive; however, getting ready for a pregnancy can take some extra planning.

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