File Name: microtubules structure and function .zip
Microtubules exhibit diverse structural and functional properties in different cell types. In this issue, Prassanawar and Panda review the current knowledge of tubulin isotypes and their post-translational modifications and how, together, they control the cellular functions of the microtubules. The cover image shows a picture of interphase microtubules in a MCF-7 cell and a representation of microtubule and its various post-translational modifications.
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- The tubulin code and its role in controlling microtubule properties and functions
The stability and dynamics of cytoskeleton in brain nerve cells are regulated by microtubule associated proteins MAPs , tau and MAP2. Both proteins are intrinsically disordered and involved in multiple molecular interactions important for normal physiology and pathology of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance and cryo-electron microscopy recently revealed propensities of MAPs to form transient local structures and long-range contacts in the free state, and conformations adopted in complexes with microtubules and filamentous actin, as well as in pathological aggregates.
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Microtubules are filamentous intracellular structures that are responsible for various kinds of movements in all eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are involved in nucleic and cell division, organization of intracellular structure, and intracellular transport, as well as ciliary and flagellar motility. For the sake of brevity, only the very basic and universal concepts about microtubules and their organization into flagella will be presented here, leaving many questions unanswered. You will find that textbooks provide more complete descriptions of microtubules and their structures and functions, but they also leave many questions unanswered. Textbooks seldom tell us is how much science knows and does not know about them, and of course they cannot be up to date with the latest discoveries. To fully understand a subject it is important to go to multiple sources.
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are very important in a number of cellular processes. They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments , they form the cytoskeleton. They also make up the internal structure of cilia and flagella. They provide platforms for intracellular transport and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the movement of secretory vesicles , organelles , and intracellular macromolecular assemblies see entries for dynein and kinesin.
The papers discuss the molecular function of tubulin in various biological processes or events. The book is divided into six sections focusing on the various aspects of the functions and structures of microtubules -- the biochemistry and molecular biology of tubulin, including regulation of microtubule assembly; microtubule-dynein systems and other proteins in cell motility; microtubules and related proteins in mitosis; the interactions of cytoskeletal components; the cytoskeleton; and microtubules in membrane functions and transport. Biochemists, biologists, and molecular biologists will find the book interesting. Detection of Tubulin Genes in Yeasts 5. Quantitative Analysis of Association of Calmodulin with Tubulin 9.
In this article we will discuss about the Structure and Function of Microtubules and Cytoskeleton in Cell. The length of microtubules varies from a fraction of a micron to several microns. The proto-filament appears to be made up of a linear series of globular protein tubulin units, like a string of beads. The basic arrangement of tubulin appears to be helical, with 13 tubulin molecules per turn of the helix. In addition to the tubulins there are about 20 to 25 secondary proteins which have been termed microtubule- associated proteins MAPs. Since microtubules are fairly rigid they form a supporting framework or cytoskeleton and give shape to the cell. Microtubules, making up the axial support of cilia and flagella, are involved in movement.
The tubulin code and its role in controlling microtubule properties and functions
However, microtubule turnover involves a surprising behavior—termed dynamic instability—in which individual polymers switch stochastically between growth and depolymerization. Dynamic instability allows microtubules to explore intracellular space and remodel in response to intracellular and extracellular cues. Here, we review how such instability is central to the assembly of many microtubule-based structures and to the robust functioning of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Along with actin Pollard and intermediate filaments Herrmann and Aebi ; Hol and Capetanaki ; Jacob et al.