File Name: partition coefficient of iodine in ccl4 and water .zip
Volatilization: a soil degassing coefficient for iodine. Iodine , an element essential to some animals, is ubiquitous in the biosphere.
- Partition coefficient
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- Partition co-efficient of Iodine in Distilled water and Carbon tetrachloride
- 4.5: Extraction Theory
If in a system of two immiscible or slightly miscible solvent, a substance, soluble in both the solvents is added, then the added substance will distribute itself between the two liquids in a definite manner depending upon its solubility. At equilibrium the ratio of the concentrations of the solute in the two liquids is constant at a given temperature and is called the distribution coefficient or partition coefficient. It is important that the solute must exist in the two solvents in the same molecular state. If C, and C 2 are the concentrations of the solute in the two solvents when equilibrium is reached, then at constant temperature.
Volatilization: a soil degassing coefficient for iodine. Iodine , an element essential to some animals, is ubiquitous in the biosphere. Unlike other metallic elements, molecular I is volatile, and other inorganic species present in aerated soils, such as I - and IO 3 - , may also volatilize as hydrides, hydrogen iodide HI , or hydrogen iodates HIO 3 , HIO 4. Methyl iodide has been measured in soils, and it is likely evolved from soils and plants. The long-lived radioisotope I is abundant in nuclear wastes, and its high solubility in groundwater makes it an important element in the performance assessment of underground disposal facilities.
Overestimates of soil I residence half-times by traditional foodchain models may be due to underestimation of volatilization. Field and lysimeter experiments over a 3-year period, and direct trapping experiments in the laboratory are reported.
The results, combined with values from the literature, indicate the soil I degassing coefficient for a wide range of soil types, vegetated and bare, wet and dry, is lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 2.
The results of a biosphere model simulation including degassing reduces soil I concentrations fivefold and increases air concentrations fold at steady state, compared to simulations without degassing.
A potential method for reducing pesticide leaching is to base application rates on the leaching potential of a specific chemical and soil combination. However, leaching is determined in part by the partitioning of the chemical between the soil and soil solution, which varies across a field. Iodine volatility. The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model.
Iodine partition coefficients , for inorganic iodine , have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility.
However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The coefficients varied from bladder to bladder owing to small differences The influence of hydrogen bonding on partition coefficients. This Perspective explores how consideration of hydrogen bonding can be used to both predict and better understand partition coefficients.
When polarity is defined in this manner, hydrogen bond donors are typically less polar than hydrogen bond acceptors. Relationships between polarity and calculated hydrogen bond basicity are derived for aromatic nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen. The partition coefficients of Xe between blood and bone. The partition coefficients of Xe between blood and haematopoietic bone marrow and homogenised bone have been determined in vitro. The partition coefficient lambda 1 corresponding to haematopoietic marrow was 0.
These data can be used for calculating regional blood flow in healthy human femur by means of a simple Xe radionuclide method. The standard deviation for logKow was 0. The regression equation was then used to estimate logKow for a test of chemicals which included pesticides and other diverse polyfunctional compounds. Experimental partition determination of octanol-water coefficients of An electrochemical method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the measurement of octanol-water partition coefficient , LogP, for ten ferrocene derivatives.
Measured LogP values ranged over two orders of magnitude, between 2. An extrapolation approach using This paper describes the work performed to find relevant experimental data and find the sorption coefficients that represent well the available data for cesium, iodine , and silver on dust particles.
The purpose of this work is to generate a set of coefficients that may be recommended for the computer code users. The data scatter is about 4 orders of magnitude. Therefore the coefficients of the Langmuir isotherms vary by 4 orders of magnitude. This tendency has been observed in the data compiled at Oak Ridge. It is therefore surmised that the highest value of the sorption coefficients are appropriate for the low temperatures and the lowest value of the sorption coefficients are appropriate for the high temperatures.
The recommended sorption coefficients are presented in this paper. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis.
During each run, a few grams of nonradioactive iodine were released from a 12 meters telescopic mast, and the rain was sampled at a short distance downwind along complete transversal sections of the plume.
The amount of iodine in each sample was determined by ionic chromatography to calculate the washout coefficient.
In most cases, the results obtained a few 10 -5 s -1 are not so different as expected from the theoretical values assuming a complete solubility of iodine in rain water. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides. Octanol-air partition coefficients Koa were measured directly for 19 organochlorine OC pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C.
Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air deltaHoa were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to kJ mol -1 K Activity coefficients in octanol gamma o were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures pL o , and these were in the range of 0.
Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.
Octanol-air partition coefficients of polybrominated biphenyls. The internal energies of phase change from octanol to air Delta OA U were calculated for the six compounds and were in the range from 74 to kJ mol Environmental assessments of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analyses of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere.
Values for clays, silt, sand and organic soils are summarized. Partition coefficients for the following elements are presented: americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, curium, europium, iodine , iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, phosphorus, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, tellurium, terbium, thorium, tin, tritium, uranium, zinc, and zirconium.
The values compiled in this study are compared with earlier K d value compendiums and are the values recommended for the use in the soil, deep sediment and overburden models for the Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste.
Nuclear ventilation installations. Method of control of the scrubbing coefficient of iodine trap. The present standard aims at defining a method to control the scrubbing coefficient of radioactive iodine trapping systems, used in nuclear ventilation installations.
It applies to the installations where the trapping, efficiency of radioactive iodine has to be known, tested and compared to a reference value generally included in the safety reports. It applies to the installations where the absolute pressure of the air in the ventilation systems is above 1,4.
Predicting solute partitioning in lipid bilayers: Free energies and partition coefficients from molecular dynamics simulations and COSMOmic. Molecular dynamics MD simulations are used to calculate free energy profiles for different solutes in lipid bilayers. How to calculate partition coefficients from these profiles is discussed in detail and different definitions of partition coefficients are compared. Importantly, it is shown that the calculated coefficients are in quantitative agreement with experimental results.
Furthermore, we compare free energy profiles from MD simulations to profiles obtained by the recent method COSMOmic, which is an extension of the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation to micelles and biomembranes.
The free energy profiles from these molecular methods are in good agreement. Four different solutes are investigated in detail: 4-ethylphenol, propanol, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, whereby the latter belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The convergence of the free energy profiles from biased MD simulations is discussed and the results are shown to be comparable to equilibrium MD simulations.
For 5-phenylvaleric acid the influence of the carboxyl group dihedral angle on free energy profiles is analyzed with MD simulations. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample. A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water.
The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of deg C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation.
We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water ppt salinity as well as tap water. Partition coefficients PCs are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals across life stages can help reduce the uncertainty in risk assessment Influence of the structure of bile acids on their partition coefficient in dibutyl ether and chloroform.
The aim of this work was to determine partition coefficients of bile acids in a mixture of water and chloroform and dibutyl ether at different pH values and with addition of different concentrations of sodium ions, and to examine the influence of the structure of bile acid nucleus on measured partition coefficients.
Partition coefficients of three bile acid salts were determined using shake-flask method and the concentration of bile acids was determined after twelve hours of shaking at the room temperature in aqueous and organic layer using reversed phase HPLC with DAD detector on nm.
For all three analysed bile acid salts values of logP are lower in dibutyl ether than in chloroform. Increasing the solution ionic strength, this intersection is shifted toward lower pH values.
With chloroform as a solvent, system quickly comes to excess with electrolyte ions than with dibutyl ether. Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.
Dissipative particle dynamics: Systematic parametrization using water-octanol partition coefficients. Anderson, Richard L. We present a systematic, top-down, thermodynamic parametrization scheme for dissipative particle dynamics DPD using water-octanol partition coefficients , supplemented by water-octanol phase equilibria and pure liquid phase density data.
We demonstrate the feasibility of computing the required partition coefficients in DPD using brute-force simulation, within an adaptive semi-automatic staged optimization scheme. We test the methodology by fitting to experimental partition coefficient data for twenty one small molecules in five classes comprising alcohols and poly-alcohols, amines, ethers and simple aromatics, and alkanes i. Finally, we illustrate the transferability of a subset of the determined parameters by calculating the critical micelle concentrations and mean aggregation numbers of selected alkyl ethoxylate surfactants, in good agreement with reported experimental values.
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In the physical sciences , a partition coefficient P or distribution coefficient D is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible solvents at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a comparison of the solubilities of the solute in these two liquids. The partition coefficient generally refers to the concentration ratio of un-ionized species of compound, whereas the distribution coefficient refers to the concentration ratio of all species of the compound ionized plus un-ionized. In the chemical and pharmaceutical sciences , both phases usually are solvents. Partition coefficients are useful in estimating the distribution of drugs within the body.
When a solution is placed in a separatory funnel and shaken with an immiscible solvent, solutes often dissolve in part into both layers. The components are said to "partition" between the two layers, or "distribute themselves" between the two layers. For example, morphine has a partition coefficient of roughly 6 in ethyl acetate and water. Note that with equal volumes of organic and aqueous phases, the partition coefficient represents the ratio of particles in each layer Figure 4. The partition coefficients reflect the solubility of a compound in the organic and aqueous layers, and so is dependent on the solvent system used.
Partition co-efficient of Iodine in Distilled water and Carbon tetrachloride
4.5: Extraction Theory
This page describes the phenomena of a solute dissolving in two immiscible liquids in contact with one another — known as a partition equilibrium. Simple calculations are described using an equilibrium expression and the partition coefficient. The theory behind multiple partition using a separating funnel is also described and explained. Part 4 sub—index 4. Advanced Equilibrium Chemistry Notes Part 1. The word ' partition ' means a substance X is distributed between two phases in a dynamic equilibrium. It is a heterogeneous equilibrium since the 'solute' is distributed between two distinct phases.
When a solute is shaken with 2 immiscible solvents it gets partitioned between the solvents. This distribution of solute in 2 solvents depends upon the solubility of the solute in two solvents. At the distribution equilibrium, the ratio of concentrations of solute in both solvents is constant at a given temperature. The constant is called the partition coefficient K or the distribution coefficient of the solute between the two solvents. Aim: To establish the partition co-efficient of iodine in distilled water d. Iodine crystals.
Choosing a Solvent with Solubility Data
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Она взглянула на скоростное печатное устройство позади письменного стола шефа. В нем ничего не. - Сьюзан, - тихо сказал Стратмор, - с этим сначала будет трудно свыкнуться, но все же послушай меня хоть минутку. - Он прикусил губу. - Шифр, над которым работает ТРАНСТЕКСТ, уникален. Ни с чем подобным мы еще не сталкивались.
- Это составляло половину того, что у него было, и раз в десять больше настоящей стоимости кольца. Росио подняла брови. - Это очень большие деньги. - Конечно. Договорились.
Я готов заплатить. Очень. Двухцветный застыл на месте и зашелся в истерическом хохоте.
На мгновение ей показалось, что на нее были устремлены горящие глаза Хейла, но прикосновение руки оказалось на удивление мягким. Это был Стратмор. Лицо его снизу подсвечивалось маленьким предметом, который он извлек из кармана. Сьюзан обмякла, испытав огромное облегчение, и почувствовала, что вновь нормально дышит: до этого она от ужаса задержала дыхание. Предмет в руке Стратмора излучал зеленоватый свет.
Раздался телефонный звонок. Директор резко обернулся. - Должно быть, это Стратмор.
Еще и собственная глупость. Он отдал Сьюзан свой пиджак, а вместе с ним - Скайпейджер. Теперь уже окаменел Стратмор.
И что же это за секрет. - Вы отлично знаете это. Это Цифровая крепость. - Вот как? - снисходительно произнес Стратмор холодным как лед голосом. - Значит, тебе известно про Цифровую крепость.
Беккер вышел из телефонной будки на перекрестке калле Саладо и авениды Асунсьон.