Agriculture And Caste Class X Pdf

agriculture and caste class x pdf

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This paper explores the social inclusiveness of agricultural extension services in India. The literature suggests that caste-based social segregation manifests in various spheres of life, and perpetuates economic inequality and oppression. An econometric analysis of nationally-representative data from rural India verifies this with respect to the agricultural sector.

Caste system in Sri Lanka

Vaishya , also spelled Vaisya , third highest in ritual status of the four varna s , or social classes, of Hindu India , traditionally described as commoners. Legend states that the varna s or colours sprang from Prajapati , a creator god—in order of status, the Brahman white from his head, the Kshatriya red from his arms, the Vaishya yellow from his thighs, and the Shudra black from his feet. The yellow colour associated with the Vaishyas, according to one theory, links them with the south point of the compass. The Vaishyas were commoners, not servile groups. Their role lay in productive labour, in agricultural and pastoral tasks, and in trading. Their way of life demanded study, sacrifice, and the giving of alms.

The caste systems in Sri Lanka are social stratification systems found among the ethnic groups of the island since ancient times. The models are similar to those found in Continental India, but are less extensive and important for various reasons, although the caste systems still play an important and at least symbolic role in religion and politics. Sri Lanka is often considered to be a casteless or caste-blind society by Indians. The caste systems of Sri Lanka were historically not tied to the religious establishment but rather a tool to service the ruling elite - a model more reminiscent of feudalism in Europe. A universal welfare system which focused on providing education for everyone regardless of background has provided people from lower caste groups similar opportunities to enter jobs previously only frequented by those in upper caste groups, with younger generations mostly rejecting any pressure to conform to caste-related jobs. The Civil War has also broken down caste barriers as they were seen as an obstacle towards ethnolinguistic unity. The caste system of the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils display some similar traits, where both systems having comparable castes with similar occupation and status.

Caste system in India

There is rising interest among research and development practitioners to arrive at impact driven solutions in the field of gender and climate change adaptation. Climate change adaptation interventions can be better targeted by being linked with type of climatic risks experienced by women farmers, their social profile and their needs based on the role they play in agriculture. This study presents a methodology to identify hotspots where climate change adaptation and gender based interventions could be prioritized. The methodology is illustrated for India. The results suggest 36 hotspots across 10 states in India, where large number of women farmers are impacted by high levels of drought probability, excess rainfall and heat wave. The target population in these hotspots comprise A socioeconomic characterization of the hotspot population highlights barriers, such as labor, credit and market access for female cultivators and lower wage rates for female laborers in these hotspots.

Tribes, clans, castes, classes have existed around a social organization. When elaborating the Indian society, it is multi-ethnic as well as multi-religious. Read more. Unlike class system, cast system does not allow any person to move from one caste to another. It has accommodated multiple communities by ensuring each of them a monopoly of a specific means of livelihood.

Looking at the class and caste differences in access to agricultural credit in India, it is seen that large proportions of farmers are still outside the fold of formal credit. Farmers from smaller farm-size class and socially marginalised castes face difficulty in accessing credit due to lower asset valuations, compounded by social discrimination. There is a need for asset creation and reorientation of the present agricultural credit policy for greater inclusiveness. Credit is an important mediating input for agriculture to improve productivity. The provision of credit is of vital importance in achieving social mobility for the population engaged in agriculture Dantwala In India, around

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 - Agriculture

The questions of the chapter are mainly based on important topics such as types of farming, cropping pattern, the major crop produced in India, etc. The answers to the questions provided in Aakash NCERT Solutions will give a better idea to students about the method to attempt the question paper in the board exam. Skip to main navigation.

The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter in minutes. Revising notes in exam days is on of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days. In the previous chapter, we noted that the existence of social diversity does not threaten democracy. In this chapter, we apply this idea to the practice of democracy in India.

Woman in agriculture, and climate risks: hotspots for development

Our founding ideals promise liberty and equality for all. Our reality is an enduring racial hierarchy that has persisted for centuries. Photo illustration by Chris Burnett.

India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture

When soil fertility decreases, they burn the remains on the land and move to a fresh patch of land. It is labour-intensive and requires high biochemical inputs. Commercial Farming - Commercial Framing uses high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Plantation - Plantation is a large tract of land with high capital investment where a single crop is grown. The produce from a plantation is used mostly in industries. In India, there are three cropping seasons:. Rabi - The sowing season is winter from October to December.

To do so, a productive, competitive, diversified and sustainable agricultural sector will need to emerge at an accelerated pace. India is a global agricultural powerhouse. The country has some m ha under cultivation of which some 63 percent are rainfed roughly m ha while 37 percent are irrigated 70m ha. Raising agricultural productivity per unit of land: Raising productivity per unit of land will need to be the main engine of agricultural growth as virtually all cultivable land is farmed. Water resources are also limited and water for irrigation must contend with increasing industrial and urban needs. All measures to increase productivity will need exploiting, amongst them: increasing yields, diversification to higher value crops, and developing value chains to reduce marketing costs. Reducing rural poverty through a socially inclusive strategy that comprises both agriculture as well as non-farm employment: Rural development must also benefit the poor, landless, women, scheduled castes and tribes.

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The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. It has origins in ancient India , and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. The caste system as it exists today is thought to be the result of developments during the collapse of the Mughal era and the rise of the British colonial government in India. In , negative discrimination on the basis of caste was banned by law and further enshrined in the Indian constitution ; however, the system continues to be practiced in parts of India. Caste-based differences have also been practised in other regions and religions in the Indian subcontinent like Nepalese Buddhism, [10] Christianity , Islam , Judaism and Sikhism.