Advantages And Disadvantages Of Male Circumcision Pdf

advantages and disadvantages of male circumcision pdf

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PLoS Med 4 7 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Victorian government portal for older people, with information about government and community services and programs. Type a minimum of three characters then press UP or DOWN on the keyboard to navigate the autocompleted search results. For more information see Guidelines for male circumcision in the Victorian public hospital system. If you are considering circumcision for yourself or your son, you need to discuss a range of issues with your doctor or surgeon including:.

Circumcision may be performed in the first few days after birth under local anaesthetic or after six months of age under general anaesthetic.

Parents and their doctor should make sure that the person performing the circumcision is experienced and competent, uses appropriate anaesthetic and has the skills to deal with any potential complications.

There are different methods of circumcision. Either local or general anaesthesia should always be used. The plastibell procedure involves numbing the area with local anaesthetic creams or injection. A bell-shaped instrument is inserted under the foreskin to separate it from the penis. The foreskin is then removed using scissors or a scalpel. Alternatively, circumcision can be performed as a formal surgical procedure, using dissolving sutures or tissue glue.

Do not try to pull back the foreskin before it is ready, as this may damage the delicate tissues and cause scarring. Generally, the foreskin of a child is best left alone. Frequently, there are adhesions areas that are still connected between the glans of the penis and the inner layer of the foreskin. Adhesions are normal and will separate over the first 15 years of life. After puberty, the foreskin should be easily retractable.

The oily glands beneath the foreskin produce a thick, white substance called smegma, which must be carefully and regularly washed away.

The following content is displayed as Tabs. Once you have activated a link navigate to the end of the list to view its associated content. The activated link is defined as Active Tab. A lack of health awareness and an unwillingness to adopt a healthier lifestyle puts men at a health disadvantage Did you know that deaths from injury are 2. That men are more likely to die from preventable diseases? While these statistics paint an alarming Adjusting to the many changes that happen around puberty can be difficult for both parents and young people New life begins when a male sex cell sperm fertilises a female egg ovum within the female reproductive system Safe sex is sexual contact that doesn't involve the exchange of semen, vaginal fluids or blood between partners In Victoria, you can have two types of abortion: surgical and medication.

Both types are safe and reliable. You can have a medication abortion up to nine weeks of pregnancy. You can have a surgical IVF in-vitro-fertilization and ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection are assisted reproductive treatment ART procedures in which fertilisation of an egg occurs outside the body The method of contraception you choose will depend on your general health, lifestyle and relationships Condoms are the most effective way to reduce your risk of contracting a sexually transmissible infection STI during sex This page shows you where to find translated information about the different methods of contraception how to prevent getting pregnant available in Australia Contraceptive injections for men are not yet available in Australia, but clinical studies suggest that they may provide a safe, effective and reversible method of male contraception in the future Having a vasectomy does not affect a man?

A couple isn't suspected of fertility problems until they have tried and failed to conceive for one year Cosmetic genital surgery involves reshaping the labia, vulva or penis to alter their size or shape Non-specific urethritis NSU means any inflammation of a man's urethra that is not caused by gonorrhoea Prostate cancer can be treated in a variety of ways, so discuss treatment options with your doctor One of the treatments for prostate cancer is androgen deprivation therapy previously called hormone therapy Men with a family history of prostate cancer, or men who have had a raised test result in the past, will benefit most from regular testing The aim of a radical prostatectomy is to remove the cancer before it spreads to other parts of the body Many men experience urinary changes as they age, which may be caused by inflammation or enlargement of the prostate gland Surgery on the prostate gland can have many side effects, including erectile problems and urinary incontinence The effects of androgen deficiency depend on how severe the deficiency is, its cause and the age at which the deficiency begins Men with an increased risk of testicular cancer should regularly examine their testicles for unusual lumps or swellings A Healthy Start to School — a guide for parents of children in their foundation year of school This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by: Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand.

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Back to Health A to Z. The foreskin is the retractable fold of skin that covers the end of the penis. It's a continuation of the skin that covers the whole penis. Read about circumcision for medical reasons in boys. But alternative treatments, such as topical steroids , are sometimes preferred. There's evidence that circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexual men acquiring HIV.

Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin prepuce from the human penis. Some medical associations take the position that the parents should determine what is in the best interest of the infant or child. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians released a statement indicating that neonatal male circumcision is "generally considered an ethical procedure", provided that 1 the child's decision makers, typically the parents, are acting in best interest of child and have been given full knowledge and 2 the procedure is performed by a competent provider, with sufficient analgesia, and does not unnecessarily harm the child or have substantial risks. This statement also recognizes that waiting until the boy is of sufficient age to make his own decision would better respect his autonomy, but points out that this may interfere with a child's religious inclusion that circumcision was meant to confer. The Canadian Paediatric Society CPS issued a position statement on September 8, , which highlighted the ethical issue surrounding the child's inability to give consent.

guidelines concerning male circumcision, in which they suggest that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the medical ethics, benefit vs. risk, female genital mutilation perceived drawbacks and harms, especially in the minds of those kinpopup/psfile/pdf/70/ English.

Male circumcision benefits women too

There are several potential advantages and disadvantages associated with circumcising boys shortly after they are born. Most healthcare professionals maintain that the potential benefits of circumcision are not strong enough to justify routine childhood circumcision. Critics of circumcision argue that it has disadvantages, such as:. Critics have also argued that routinely circumcising baby boys on medical grounds violates the principle of consent to treatment. They say that circumcision should only be performed when a boy is old enough to make an informed decision about whether he wishes to be circumcised.

The benefits of medical male circumcision have been proven to also extend to women. It has been shown that female partners of men who are circumcised have a less risk of contracting the Human Papilloma Virus HPV , a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer. Read More. For many years, men have been the direct recipients of messages on medical male circumcision and its benefits. One of them being that it reduces the risk of HIV infection in men.

The Problem with Medicalizing Morality.

Ethics of circumcision

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Male circumcision MC is the first planned surgical procedure ever performed.

We use strictly necessary cookies to make our site work. We would also like to set optional cookies analytical, functional and YouTube to enhance and improve our service. You can opt-out of these cookies. Cookies Statement and Privacy Statement. Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin. The foreskin is the fold of skin covering the end of the penis, which can be gently pulled back.

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin, which is the skin covering the tip of the penis. The procedure is typically done on a newborn for personal or religious reasons. Circumcision in older children and adults may also be done for the same reasons. Additionally, older children or adults may need circumcision to treat several conditions, including:. In healthy newborns, there is no medical need for circumcision. However, families may choose to have their sons circumcised for a number of reasons.

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routine male circumcision gradually became less common as many members of the medical community began to argue that it had no real medical benefit in.