File Name: lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery .zip
- Lasers in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
- تحميل كتاب 2 Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry
- Lasers in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1st ed. 2020 Edition PDF
- Lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery
With the advent of new and developing technology into the field of dentistry, it becomes increasingly important for dentists to become familiar with these developing techniques. The use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a substantial increase in both, applications of lasers for different techniques, and also the number of surgeons opting to use them on a regular basis.
Lasers in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Kanhaiya lal 1 , J. Parthiban 2 , Banu Sargunar 3 , C. Prakash 4 , B. Anandh 5. Lasers have revolutionized dental treatment since three and a half decades of the twentieth century. Theodore Maiman in invented the ruby laser, since then laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice.
Lasers have been used in initial periodontal therapy, oral surgical procedures, and also in implant treatment. Further research is necessary so that laser can become a part of the dental armamentarium.
A, Anandh B. Usefullness of Laser in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Laser systems and their application in dentistry and especially oral surgery are rapidly improving today. The specific advantages of lasers are incision of tissues, coagulation during operation and postoperative benefits.
Semiconductor diode lasers Gallium arsenide GaAs , gallium-aluminum-arsenide GaAlAs are portable compact surgical units with efficient and reliable benefits. They are assigned according to economic and ergonomic consideration and offer reduced costs in comparison to other modern hard laser devices 1.
This laser can be used in a continuous or pulsed mode of operation through contact or noncontact application on tissues according to the clinical approach and treatment method. The noncontact delivery is utilized to focus the emitted photons on tissue in order to create larger spot diameter, lower fluency, lower energy and gain for coagulation of superficial lesions, for example in removing the vascular tissues.
Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from to nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible modality for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Click here to view full figure. These lesions can be treated with laser therapy. Small questionable lesions can be excised by using carbon dioxide laser with a 0. It is applied perpendicular to the elliptical outline around the lesion. After the outline is created, the edge of the tissue is lifted using tissue forceps and the underlying tissues are dissected with laser beam at a slight angle.
The lesion can be removed easily and sent for pathological examination [4, 5]. These lesions are reversible after cessation of the habit. The lesions that persist even after cessation, especially those that exhibit ulceration should be sent for examination. They can be excised by using the laser in a focused mode. They are usually accessible to the laser occurring in the mucolabial or mucobuccal fold in the mandible [4,5].
These lesions are usually asymptomatic. If the patient complains of pain, burning or ulceration, laser treatment can be done to eradicate it. The lesion is wiped with saline to remove the lased surface so that the nonlased surfaces will be revealed. After finishing the process, the final lased surface layer is left undisturbed to act as barrier and help in the protection of the healing surface.
A palatal splint is fabricated to help the patient protect the lased surfaces during eating and drinking. An Nd:YAG contact round surgical probe can also be used in a similar manner to the carbon dioxide laser . It is a premalignant lesion involving the vermilion border of the lips and mostly the lower lips. If the lesion is not treated, it may transform into a squamous cell carcinoma.
Using laser under microscopic control has been found to effective in the removal of the lesion. A carbon dioxide laser can be used at a focused spot to outline the lesion by passing between the vermilion and the hair bearing skin of the anterior lip surface and extending it towards the commissures and posteriorly to the labial vestibule. It should include about mm of the surrounding normal mucosa within the target tissue. After the outline is done, the laser is held cm away from the tissue and a crosshatching patter is produced in the defocussed mode.
After the lasing procedure is finished, the surfaces are wiped with a moistened gauze sponge, then the surface is coated with an antibiotic dressing and a nonadherent pad is taped [5,6]. These lesions can be removed with laser and encourages regeneration of new, healthy epithelium. Small lesions can be removed with a focused carbon dioxide laser with a margin of mm. The decision of whether excision or vaporization should be done is based on the texture and thickness of the lesion.
Thickened hyperkeratotic lesions have less water content, therefore, vaporization cannot be done. Diffuse lesions cannot be managed by excision.
In such lesions, carbon dioxide lasers can be used in a defocussed mode to produce cross hatched pattern. Erythroplakia is managed by excision with the help of a carbon diode laser in a pulsed mode to outline the lesion. Then the laser beam is set on focused mode in a continuous wave and a laser moat is created around the lesion.
The dysplastic changes that occur in the epithelium may affect the deeper tissues also. Therefore the upper portion of the lamina propria should also be included in the specimen. Multiple deep biopsy samples should be taken to prevent infiltration [4,5].
The lesion can be excised with carbon dioxide laser. This is done by limited scarring of the tissue. The laser is set on pulsed mode and an outline is created around the lesion. Then the laser beam is directed perpendicular to the outline margin and a full thickness wedge is removed.
Once it is removed, the tissues can be approximated with sutures [4,5]. The exophytic lesion can be readily excised along with the base of the lesion using a carbon dioxide laser or Nd:YAG contact laser. Whether or not laser holds a long term value in the control of leukoplakia has not been determined yet. Using laser under microscopic control provided better control and precision . The mucosa is erythematous and has a papillary surface. It can be managed with a carbon dioxide laser or an Nd:YAG contact laser.
Sachs and Borden were the first to treat this lesion with a carbon dioxide laser. Diffuse lesions can be managed by vaporization with CO2 laser after selective punch biopsies have been taken. The laser is set on continuous defocussed mode and using the cross hatching method, the area of the lesion is covered. The lased tissue surface is wiped off with saline soaked sponge. The contact Nd:YAG laser with a round probe can also be used to eliminate the lesion by stroking the surface in a similar cross hatched manner without lifting the tip of the probe from the surface of the lesion .
Erosive lichen planus can be controlled by laser treatment. Carbon dioxide laser should be used along with selected local and systemic medications. This laser is set on a continuous, defocused mode and the usual cross hatched pattern is used. The contact Nd:YAG laser with round probe can also be used. This condition cannot be cured by laser treatment; it is used for palliative treatment. It has been reported from patients that there is a significant decrease in burning sensation from the lesion.
Hong-Sai reported that there is an improvement in the histologic appearance after laser therapy . The ulcer is painful on palpation. It helps in immediate pain relief and accelerates wound healing. When steroids are used, it takes days for regression . Bladowski et al also found that diode laser used at low levels reduces the wound healing period to half compared to pharmaceutical method .
Various lasers wavelengths have been found to be effective in treating these lesions including HeNelaser nm and Erbium:YAG laser nm [14,15]. Laser treatment can be done to remove mucoceles. The mucocele can be unroofed and then excised with the gland tissue using Laser HF . This laser uses high frequency technology which helps in precision cutting and reduces the risk of necrosis. The lesion is excised using fibroma removal mode nm, continuous wave.
The wound margins are sealed with a defocussed beam without side effects or complications. Re-epithelialization takes about three weeks . The condition is well recognized for its malignant potential and is particularly associated with areca nut chewing, the main component of betel quid.
Betel quid chewing is a habit practiced predominately in Southeast Asia and India. Diode Laser is a treatment for Oral SubmucousFibrosis Oral cancer in particular is a highly prevalent neoplasm. Laser surgery has become a reliable treatment option for oral cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. The use of lasers in tumor surgery has several advantages: remote application, precise cutting, hemostasis, low cicatrization, reduced postoperativepain and swelling, can be combined with endoscopic, microscopic and robotic surgery.
CO2 and Er-YAG lasers are mainly absorbed by water, resulting in a minimal penetration depth and fast heating, with effective removal of soft and hard tissue. CO2 lasers are mainly used as laser scalpels for the excision of tumors from soft tissues [5, 6, 15, 16]. In a defocused mode, CO2-lasers are used for superficial tissue vaporization, to treat precancerous lesions in the oral cavity [3, 4]. The Er-YAG laser seems to be a highly efficient tool for cutting both soft and hard tissues with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue.
Nd:YAG lasers emit light at a wavelength range of nm, which is in-between the absorption maxima of water and blood. The penetration depth is therefore deeper than that of CO2- or Er:YAG lasers and may reach 4 mm, with the possibility of a larger zone of damage to the surrounding tissue.
However, due to a higher potency of coagulation, Nd-YAG-lasers are recommended for tissue resection in cases of hemorrhage. Nd:YAG lasers are used for the excision of cancer in a focused mode as well as for the removal of precancerous lesions in a defocused mode Soft tissue surgery may be performed with any of the soft tissue lasers.
تحميل كتاب 2 Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry
Kanhaiya lal 1 , J. Parthiban 2 , Banu Sargunar 3 , C. Prakash 4 , B. Anandh 5. Lasers have revolutionized dental treatment since three and a half decades of the twentieth century.
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The opening chapters focus on the relevant physical background, the technology of the typically used lasers, laser—tissue interactions, and the treatment systems. Detailed information is then provided on the various established applications of laser treatments, including in relation to skin and mucosa and the dental hard tissues and bone. Special applications are also described, for example with respect to periodontal surgery, peri-implantitis therapy, photodynamic treatment, holography and additive manufacturing. The book closes by examining technologies that will soon be available for application in hospitals, topics which are currently the subject of research, and laser safety. Beyond surgeons, the book will be of value for engineers and scientists working in the field of medical engineering using lasers.
Lasers in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1st ed. 2020 Edition PDF
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So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies. It has revolutionized treatments in all fields of dentistry, such as periodontal treatments, dental implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery etc. Several new technologies have been innovated in the field of lasers.
Lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery
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Approximately 10% to 20% of all oral and maxillofacial surgeons use a laser in office-based practice, and most have access to lasers in the.
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