Diseases Symptoms And Treatments Pdf

diseases symptoms and treatments pdf

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Gastrointestinal diseases affect the gastrointestinal GI tract from the mouth to the anus.

A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the immune system can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of immunodeficiency , hypersensitivity , allergies and autoimmune disorders.

Nervous system diseases

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by insects or other animals. And you may get others by consuming contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment.

Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home remedies, while some life-threatening infections may need hospitalization. Many infectious diseases, such as measles and chickenpox, can be prevented by vaccines. Frequent and thorough hand-washing also helps protect you from most infectious diseases. Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms.

General signs and symptoms common to a number of infectious diseases include:. An easy way to catch most infectious diseases is by coming in contact with a person or an animal with the infection. Infectious diseases can be spread through direct contact such as:. Person to person. Infectious diseases commonly spread through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can happen when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected.

These germs can also spread through the exchange of body fluids from sexual contact. The person who passes the germ may have no symptoms of the disease, but may simply be a carrier.

Disease-causing organisms also can be passed by indirect contact. Many germs can linger on an inanimate object, such as a tabletop, doorknob or faucet handle. When you touch a doorknob handled by someone ill with the flu or a cold, for example, you can pick up the germs he or she left behind. If you then touch your eyes, mouth or nose before washing your hands, you may become infected. Some germs rely on insect carriers — such as mosquitoes, fleas, lice or ticks — to move from host to host.

These carriers are known as vectors. Mosquitoes can carry the malaria parasite or West Nile virus. Deer ticks may carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Disease-causing germs can also infect you through contaminated food and water.

This mechanism of transmission allows germs to be spread to many people through a single source. Escherichia coli E. While anyone can catch infectious diseases, you may be more likely to get sick if your immune system isn't working properly. This may occur if:.

In addition, certain other medical conditions may predispose you to infection, including implanted medical devices, malnutrition and extremes of age, among others. Most infectious diseases have only minor complications. But some infections — such as pneumonia, AIDS and meningitis — can become life-threatening. A few types of infections have been linked to a long-term increased risk of cancer:. In addition, some infectious diseases may become silent, only to appear again in the future — sometimes even decades later.

For example, someone who's had chickenpox may develop shingles much later in life. Prepare food safely. Keep counters and other kitchen surfaces clean when preparing meals. Cook foods to the proper temperature, using a food thermometer to check for doneness. For ground meats, that means at least F 71 C ; for poultry, F 74 C ; and for most other meats, at least F 63 C.

Also promptly refrigerate leftovers — don't let cooked foods remain at room temperature for long periods of time. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version.

Overview Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic.

What are superbugs and how can I protect myself from infection? Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Facts about infectious disease. Infectious Disease Society of America. Accessed May 29, Jameson JL, et al. Approach to the patient with an infectious disease.

In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York, N. Clean hands count for safe health care. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kumar P, et al. Infectious diseases and tropical medicine. In: Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa. LaRocque R, et al. Causes of infectious diarrhea and other foodborne illnesses in resource-rich settings.

Ryan KJ, ed. Infectious diseases: Syndromes and etiologies. In: Sherris Medical Microbiology. File TM, et al. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

Accessed May DeClerq E, et al. Approved antiviral drugs over the past 50 years. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Mousa HAL. Prevention and treatment of influenza, influenza-like illness and common cold by herbal, complementary, and natural therapies. Caring for someone sick. Germs Infection: Bacterial or viral?

Mayo Clinic Minute: What is the Asian longhorned tick? Types of infectious agents What are superbugs and how can I protect myself from infection? What is chikungunya fever, and should I be worried? What is the Asian longhorned tick and where is it found? Show more related content. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.

A Text-Book of Medical Treatment: Diseases and Symptoms

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by insects or other animals. And you may get others by consuming contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment.

Error: This is required. Error: Not a valid value. Alzheimer's disease affects brain function, memory and behaviour. Find out how to boost the chances of a full recovery. Cerebral palsy affects the nervous system, muscle control, movement and coordination. While the cause is often unknown, there are risk factors.

Causes and Symptoms of Foodborne Illness

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This book is not an ordinary work on medicine, but occupies a field which has been largely neglected. Since symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, etc.

Learn about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells.

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Other causes of distributive shock include systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) due to Clinical signs and symptoms of PEM include the following.


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