Concept And Definition Of Development Pdf

concept and definition of development pdf

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By Saul McLeod , updated

Developmental Psychology

Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development , economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. Unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans. The earliest Western theory of development economics was mercantilism , which developed in the 17th century, paralleling the rise of the nation state.

Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, and the creation or expansion of local regional income and employment opportunities, without damaging the resources of the environment. Development is visible and useful, not necessarily immediately, and includes an aspect of quality change and the creation of conditions for a continuation of that change. The international agenda began to focus on development beginning in the second half of the twentieth century. Martha Nussbaum developed the abilities approach in the field of gender and emphasized the empowerment of women as a development tool.

Developmental Psychology

In the s and s, development was largely referred to as economic growth, which meant a quantitative rather than qualitative change in economic performance. Consequently, development theories were designed to activate and accelerate the process of economic growth and move developing nations along the path charted by the industrial ones of the West, from relying primarily on agricultural activity to relying primarily on industrial production and trade. No plan or amount of money can develop an economy if it leaves out culture, which governs the attitudes and the ways of thinking of the people who would be managing the proposed development strategies and programs. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of 'traditional' or 'backward' societies.

In digital society, knowledge is well distributed virtually and online. A substantial fraction of knowledge landscapes is also located in the digital environment. Both health and knowledge need to be understood today as a part of the digital society. It is important to estimate the impact that digital society has on knowledge landscapes and on health. Hence, this article deals with the concepts of health in relation to the present digital environment.

Meaning of Development

Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live. The human development concept was developed by economist Mahbub ul Haq. At the World Bank in the s, and later as minister of finance in his own country, Pakistan, Dr. In particular, he believed that the commonly used measure of Gross Domestic Product failed to adequately measure well-being. Central to the human development approach is the concept of capabilities.

Dudley Seers while elaborating on the meaning of development suggests that while there can be value judgements on what is development and what is not, it should be a universally acceptable aim of development to make for conditions that lead to a realisation of the potentials of human personality. A job not necessarily paid employment but including studying, working on a family farm or keeping house;. The people are held to be the principal actors in human scale development.

 Нет. Думаю, англичанка. И с какими-то дикими волосами - красно-бело-синими.

About Human Development

Сьюзан, не слушая его, повернулась к Соши.

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Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано. Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся. Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры.

 Нет. Мы к нему не прикасались. Мой друг испугался. Он хоть и крупный, но слабак.  - Она кокетливо улыбнулась Беккеру.

Последние слова предсмертной записки Хейла крутились у нее в голове, не повинуясь никаким приказам. И в первую очередь я искренне сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере. Простите. Я был ослеплен своими амбициями. Ее тревога не была напрасной. Дэвид в опасности… или того хуже.

Я тебя разбудил.

 - Все хотят поиграть в эту игру. Сьюзан пропустила эти слова мимо ушей. - Да.

 Тут что-то не так, - наконец сказала.  - Не думаю, что это ключ. Фонтейн глубоко вздохнул.

 - О, Дэвид… как они могли… Фонтейн растерялся: - Вы знаете этого человека. Сьюзан застыла в полутора метрах от экрана, ошеломленная увиденным, и все называла имя человека, которого любила. ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота. Я умер. Но я слышу какие-то звуки.

Development economics

Чатрукьян тяжело сглотнул.

Вообще-то она ничего не имела против этого имени, но Хейл был единственным, кто его использовал, и это было ей неприятно. - Почему бы мне не помочь тебе? - предложил Хейл. Он подошел ближе.  - Я опытный диагност.

Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья. В кадре возник мужчина в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, в руке он держал большой портфель. Выйдя на открытое место и бросив взгляд на корчащегося на земле Танкадо, он задвигал пальцами, словно исполнял ими какой-то причудливый танец над коробочкой, которую держал в руке.

У нас были бы красивые дети, - подумал. - Чем ты занята? - спросил Хейл, пробуя иной подход. Сьюзан ничего не ответила.

Development Economics

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