File Name: anatomy and physiology of neurological system .zip
- 12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System
- The Central Nervous System
- Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System
12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system CNS , where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system PNS monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions. The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals.
The Central Nervous System
This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This book is intended to present neuro-anatomy and especially neurophysiology mainly from the standpoint of clinical usefulness. It is divided into twenty-four chapters to include the peripheral nervous system, spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, epithalamus, extrapyramidal systems, the brain, the vegetative nervous system, posture and the cerebrospinal fluid. The author has ably described in his introduction changes in the nervous system brought about by evolution.
The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain , the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord , the extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord. In addition to the anatomical divisions listed above, the nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us sensory functions, sensation and generating responses to that information motor functions, responses and coordinating the two integration. Sensation refers to receiving information about the environment, either what is happening outside ie: heat from the sun or inside the body ie: heat from muscle activity.
The peripheral nervous system PNS is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals , with the other part being the central nervous system CNS. The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve cranial nerve II , along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon. However, the remaining ten cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS.
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Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System
Animals must be able to sense and respond to the environment in which they live if they are to survive. They need to be able to sense the temperature of their surroundings, for example, so they can avoid the hot sun. They must also be able to identify food and escape predators. The various systems and organs in the body must also be linked so they work together. For example, once a predator has identified suitable prey it has to catch it.
Nervous System Anatomy
The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system, and they represent the main organs of the nervous system. The spinal cord is a single structure, whereas the adult brain is described in terms of four major regions: the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. The regulation of homeostasis is governed by a specialized region in the brain. The coordination of reflexes depends on the integration of sensory and motor pathways in the spinal cord. The iconic gray mantle of the human brain, which appears to make up most of the mass of the brain, is the cerebrum [link]. The wrinkled portion is the cerebral cortex , and the rest of the structure is beneath that outer covering. There is a large separation between the two sides of the cerebrum called the longitudinal fissure.
Чед, список будет распечатан в течение тридцати секунд. Вот мои условия. Ты даешь мне ключ. Если Стратмор обошел фильтры, я вызываю службу безопасности. Если я ошиблась, то немедленно ухожу, а ты можешь хоть с головы до ног обмазать вареньем свою Кармен Хуэрту. - Мидж зло посмотрела на него и протянула руку. - Давай ключ.
Хейл не мог поверить, что Стратмор согласился упустить такую возможность: ведь черный ход был величайшим шансом в его жизни. Хейлом овладела паника: повсюду, куда бы он ни посмотрел, ему мерещился ствол беретты Стратмора. Он шарахался из стороны в сторону, не выпуская Сьюзан из рук, стараясь не дать Стратмору возможности выстрелить. Движимый страхом, он поволок Сьюзан к лестнице. Через несколько минут включат свет, все двери распахнутся, и в шифровалку ворвется полицейская команда особого назначения. - Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан.
Значит, это не Дэвид. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее перехватило дыхание.