Respiratory System Notes Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

respiratory system notes anatomy and physiology pdf

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The trillions of cells in the body require an abundant and continuous supply of oxygen to carry out their vital functions. The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and their smaller branches, and the lungs, which contain the alveoli.

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The respiratory system is made up of the organs included in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. These are the parts:. The lungs take in oxygen. The cells of your body's cells need oxygen to live and carry out their normal functions. The lungs also get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cells. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped organs made up of spongy, pinkish-gray tissue.

The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx , larynx , trachea , bronchi and lungs. The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the air is funnelled down into our lungs. There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into the air. When something goes wrong with part of the respiratory system, such as an infection like pneumonia , it makes it harder for us to get the oxygen we need and to get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. Common respiratory symptoms include breathlessness , cough , and chest pain.

Respiratory system , the system in living organisms that takes up oxygen and discharges carbon dioxide in order to satisfy energy requirements. In the living organism, energy is liberated, along with carbon dioxide, through the oxidation of molecules containing carbon. The term respiration denotes the exchange of the respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide between the organism and the medium in which it lives and between the cells of the body and the tissue fluid that bathes them. With the exception of energy used by animal life in the deep ocean, all energy used by animals is ultimately derived from the energy of sunlight. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in conjunction with the energy of sunlight is used by plants to synthesize sugars and other components. Animals consume plants or other organic material to obtain chemical compounds , which are then oxidized to sustain vital processes.

Respiratory system

Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange. In addition to air distribution and gas exchange, the respiratory system filters, warms, and humidifies the air you breathe. Organs in the respiratory system also play a role in speech and the sense of smell. Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity. Lower respiratory tract: Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree including the alveoli , the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity. The inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. Each lung is divided into lobes; the right lung consists of the superior, middle, and inferior lobes,.


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The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels. The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste gases like carbon dioxide. The respiratory system has many functions.

The respiratory tract is the subdivision of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration in mammals. Air is breathed in through the nose to the nasal cavity , where a layer of nasal mucosa acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx , a passage that contains the intersection between the oesophagus and the larynx. The opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis , that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the airway.

Respiratory System Anatomy and Physiology

Respiratory system (pulmonary system) anatomy

The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing Figure Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone. The conducting zone of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange. The gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone. The major functions of the conducting zone are to provide a route for incoming and outgoing air, remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air, and warm and humidify the incoming air.

Собор был уже совсем рядом, он это чувствовал. Толпа стала еще плотнее, а улица шире. Они двигались уже не по узкому боковому притоку, а по главному руслу.

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У него счастливая миури - счастливая судьба. Он избранник богов. - В моих руках копия ключа Цифровой крепости, - послышался голос с американским акцентом.  - Не желаете купить. Нуматака чуть не расхохотался во весь голос.

Respiratory System


Eider M.


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