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- Kinetic theory of gases
- Kinetic Theory Notes For Class 11 Chapter 13 Download PDF
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While this little bit of tungsten residue is annoying for modern people who like to read at night, in the early s light bulbs used to burn out their filaments and turn black very quickly. Then in , the American chemist Irving Langmuir figured out a surprising solution to keep bulbs burning bright: fill the bulb with an inert , non-toxic gas called argon. Before Langmuir, manufacturers made light bulbs with a vacuum inside to prevent oxygen from contacting the filament. Langmuir figured out that by filling the bulb with argon gas , the tungsten atoms would take much longer to blacken the bulb. Instead of streaking straight towards the glass walls, they would collide and bounce off the argon atoms, sometimes even ricocheting back into the filament. Langmuir was able to solve the problem of blackening light bulbs because he was familiar with kinetic-molecular theory KMT.
Charles Law: At constant pressure volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Gay Lussacs Law:At constant volume, pressure of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temp. Ideal gas: A gas which obeys gas law strictly is an ideal or perfect gas. The molecules of such a gas are of point size and there is no force of attraction between them. Lumding; K. Karimganj; K.
Kinetic theory of gases
Kinetic theory of gases , a theory based on a simplified molecular or particle description of a gas , from which many gross properties of the gas can be derived. The British scientist James Clerk Maxwell and the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann , in the 19th century, led in establishing the theory, which became one of the most important concepts in modern science. The simplest kinetic model is based on the assumptions that: 1 the gas is composed of a large number of identical molecules moving in random directions, separated by distances that are large compared with their size; 2 the molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions no energy loss with each other and with the walls of the container, but otherwise do not interact; and 3 the transfer of kinetic energy between molecules is heat. These simplifying assumptions bring the characteristics of gases within the range of mathematical treatment. Such a model describes a perfect gas and is a reasonable approximation to a real gas, particularly in the limit of extreme dilution and high temperature.
The kinetic theory of gases is a simple, historically significant model of the thermodynamic behavior of gases , with which many principal concepts of thermodynamics were established. The model describes a gas as a large number of identical submicroscopic particles atoms or molecules , all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion. Their size is assumed to be much smaller than the average distance between the particles. The particles undergo random elastic collisions between themselves and with the enclosing walls of the container. The basic version of the model describes the ideal gas , and considers no other interactions between the particles. The kinetic theory of gases explains the macroscopic properties of gases, such as volume, pressure, and temperature, as well as transport properties such as viscosity , thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The model also accounts for related phenomena, such as Brownian motion.
By the late 19th century, scientists had begun accepting the atomic theory of matter started relating it to individual molecules. The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases comes from observations that scientists made about gases to explain their macroscopic properties. The following are the basic assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory:. This can be written as:. According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, an increase in temperature will increase the average kinetic energy of the molecules. As the particles move faster, they will likely hit the edge of the container more often. If the reaction is kept at constant pressure, they must stay farther apart, and an increase in volume will compensate for the increase in particle collision with the surface of the container.
Kinetic Theory of Gases. General Gas Law. The behavior of a gas under various condition8 of temperature and pressure has already been studied in 80me.
Kinetic Theory Notes For Class 11 Chapter 13 Download PDF
Every gas consists of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecules of a given gas are all identical but are different from those of another gas. Their molecular size is negligible in comparison to intermolecular distance 10 -9 m. The distance covered by the molecules between two successive collisions is known as free path and mean of all free path is known as mean free path. Gravitational to extremely attraction among the molecules is ineffective due small masses and very high speed of molecules.
Kinetic theory of gases and gas laws. Speed, Pressure, and Kinetic Energy of gases. Degree of Freedom. Specific Heat Capacities of Gases.
In the notes of Kinetic theory of gases for class 12, all the detailed information is provided on the concepts covered in the chapter along with solved questions. We prepare these notes systemically to help students with a comprehensive learning experience. In order to make learning easier, we have listed down some concepts from the kinetic theory. The behaviour of a hypothetical ideal gas is explained in this section.