File Name: digestive system of chicken and its functions .zip
- The Digestive System of a Chicken
- Functional genomics of the digestive tract in broilers
- DIGESTION IN POULTRY
- Parts of a Chicken Digestive Tract
Written by: Dr.
The Digestive System of a Chicken
Metrics details. The sustainability of poultry farming relies on the development of more efficient and autonomous production systems in terms of feed supply. This implies a better integration of adaptive traits in breeding programs, including digestive efficiency, in order to favor the use of a wider variety of feedstuffs. The aim of the project was to improve the understanding of genes involved in digestive functions by characterizing the transcriptome of different sections of the digestive tract: the junction between the proventriculus and the gizzard, the gizzard, the gastroduodenal junction, and the jejunum. Bioinformatics and biostatistics analyses of the RNA-seq data showed a total of 11, differentially expressed transcripts between the four tissues. In total, seven clusters of genes with markedly different expression profiles were identified.
Intestinal epithelial cells are multi-tasked cells that participate in digestion and absorption as well as in protection of the digestive tract. While information on the physiology and immune functions of intestinal epithelial cells in mammals is abundant, little is known of their immune function in birds and other species. Our main objectives were to study the development of anti-bacterial innate immune functions in the rapidly developing gut of the pre- and post-hatch chick and to determine the functional diversity of epithelial cells. After establishing primary intestinal epithelial cell cultures, we demonstrated their capacity to uptake and process bacteria. The response to bacterial products, LPS and LTA, induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-6, IL as well as the expression of the acute phase proteins avidin, lysozyme and the secretory component derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. These proteins were then localized in gut sections, and the goblet cell was shown to store avidin, lysozyme as well as secretory component. Lysozyme staining was also located in a novel rod-shaped intestinal cell, situated at different loci along the villus, thus deviating from the classical Paneth cell in the mammal, that is restricted to crypts.
Functional genomics of the digestive tract in broilers
The avian cuisine varies as much as in mammals, leading to classification of individuals as carnivores, insectivores, seed-eaters and the like. As a consequence of these behavioral and dietary adaptations, a number of variations are seen in digestive anatomy of different birds. Having recognized that, however, common features of the avian digestive tract can be described. The Pregastric System The mouth of birds distinctly different from mammals. They have no teeth and their jaws are covered by a beak, which is seen in remarkably different forms. Birds do not really masticate, and mechanical disruption of food is accomplished by the beak and gizzard. The esophagus is large in diameter, particularly in birds that swallow large meals.
The microbiome of the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract GIT has been extensively studied, and it has been amply demonstrated that it plays an important role in the health of the host, as it has a positive impact on the immune system, the physiology of the GIT, and productivity. Also, the microbiota is involved in reducing and preventing colonization by enteric pathogens through the process of competitive exclusion and the production of bacteriostatic and bactericidal substances. The taxonomic composition of the microbiota is affected by different factors, such as the organ, the age of the animal, diet and the use of antimicrobials. Different kinds of additives that regulate the microbial community in feed include probiotics live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host , prebiotics ingredients that stimulate increased beneficial microbial activity in the digestive system in order to improve the health of the host and phytobiotics primary or secondary components of plants that contain bioactive compounds that exert a positive effect on the growth and health of animals. Phages may potentially provide an integrated solution to modulate the intestinal microbiome of chicken intestines, as they reduce specific pathogenic microbial populations, permitting the proliferation of beneficial microbiota. Studies have shown that the use of cocktails of phages, especially in high concentrations and with short lapses of time between exposure to the bacteria and treatment with phages, optimize the reduction of Salmonella in chickens. Each of these technologies has demonstrable positive effects on the health of the host and the reduction of the pathogen load in controlled assays.
DIGESTION IN POULTRY
Gizzard , in many birds, the hind part of the stomach , especially modified for grinding food.
Parts of a Chicken Digestive Tract
The aim of this review is to present and discuss the anatomy and physiology of crop in different avian species. The avian crop ingluvies present in most omnivorous and herbivorous bird species, plays a major role in feed storage and moistening, as well as functional barrier for pathogens through decreasing pH value by microbial fermentation. Moreover, recent data suggest that this gastrointestinal tract segment may play an important role in the regulation of the innate immune system of birds. Thus, ingluvies may have a significant impact on bird performance and health status during all stages of rearing. Thus, a functionality of the crop is dependent on a number of factors, including age, dietary factors, infections as well as flock management. It is important to expand knowledge about the crop functions to use them effectively in poultry production. Furthermore, more scientific data is needed in the scope of immunological function of the crop as well as its microecosystem for a better understanding of the avian immune system and enhancing the health of the birds.
Черт побери, немедленно отключить. Мидж появилась в дверях со свежей распечаткой в руке. - Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Что?! - хором вскричали Бринкерхофф и Фонтейн. - Он пытался, сэр! - Мидж помахала листком бумаги.
Коммандер глубоко вздохнул и подошел к раздвижной стеклянной двери. Кнопка на полу привела ее в движение, и дверь, издав шипящий звук, отъехала в сторону. Чатрукьян ввалился в комнату. - Коммандер… сэр, я… извините за беспокойство, но монитор… я запустил антивирус и… - Фил, Фил, - нехарактерным для него ласковым тоном сказал Стратмор. - Потише и помедленнее.
Фонтейн не мог понять, в чем дело, но, какими бы ни были причины ее состояния, выяснять это сейчас не было времени. - Нужно решать, сэр! - требовал Джабба. - Немедленно.
Стратмор покачал головой, отказываясь верить тому, что услышал. - Не может быть, чтобы Грег Хейл был гарантом затеи Танкадо. Это полный абсурд.