What Is Computer Hardware And Software Pdf

what is computer hardware and software pdf

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The Architecture of Computer Hardware System Software and Networking

The modern world offers lots of readily available online resources for learning. Wikipedia, Google, news sources, millions of Web sites and blogs, even YouTube, offer access to information in nearly any subject that triggers your curiosity and interest. Nonetheless, I continue to believe that for a deep understanding of something, nothing beats the integrated approach and focus of an old-fashioned printed-on-paper textbook.

When I open a new book, in any subject, the first thing I want to know is what the book has to offer that makes it worth my while to read it. The information systems and technology fields are wonderfully exciting places to be! It seems as though every day brings new developments that alter the ways we create and work with information. Of course, with this excitement comes a challenge.

To be a successful player in IS or IT we have to be adaptable and flexible. Much of the change occurs around computer system technology. The computer is, after all, at the foundation of information systems. A deep understanding of computer systems is, therefore, an essential element of success. We must be able to understand each new development, assess its value, and place it in the context of our knowledge of computer systems. The subject of this book is the architecture of computer systems.

Computer architecture is about the structure and operation of digital computers. Computer architecture is concerned with the operational methods of the hardware; with the services provided by operating system software; with the acquisition, processing, storage, and output of data; and with the interaction between computers.

There is a tendency for people in information systems and technology to neglect a study of computer architecture. After all, the technology changes so rapidly are it really worth trying to understand something that may be out of date by the time I finish this book? There is no question that computer technology has evolved rapidly. The computer in a personal computer, or even in a cell phone or MP3 player is far more powerful than the mainframe computer of twenty-five years ago, with memory, disk, and flash storage capacity, display and multimedia capability, and ease of use that would have been unthinkable just a few years ago.

Even more important, connecting systems to work together is now routine and simple. Interestingly enough, however, as profound as advances in the technology have been, the concepts of computer architecture that really matter have changed only nominally over the last sixty years.

The new technologies are based on a foundation of architectural concepts that were developed many years ago.

The architecture of a modern computer system was developed in the s. The instruction set in a modern personal computer is nearly identical to that of computers built in the s and s. Modern operating system techniques were developed in the s. The graphical user interface is based on a s project. The Internet is built from concepts developed more than forty years ago. When you are done reading this book you will have substantial knowledge about how a computer works and a good understanding of the operating concepts, the hardware, and system software that make up a computer.

You will see the interaction between computers and between data and the computer. Plus, you will have learned lots of jargon that you can show off at parties and job interviews.

This textbook is designed for a wide range of readers, both undergraduate and graduate. The material is specifically directed toward IS and IT majors. There are no explicit prerequisites, although the book assumes that the student is familiar with a personal computer. It also assumes but does not require some basic programming skills: although there is no programming in the book, program code is occasionally used as an example to clarify an idea, and a knowledge of programming is helpful at understanding instruction set design and program execution concepts.

The material in this textbook conforms to the criteria of the IT Infrastructure course as described in the December draft of the joint IS standard curriculum. Although the material in this book may be useful as background for system design and implementation project courses, the course can be placed anywhere in the curriculum.

Most instructors will not cover the entire textbook in a single semester. The organization of the book is designed to allow an instructor to cover the major topic areas in different levels of depth, depending on the experience and needs of the students. On the other hand, it is my intention that this book will serve a student as a useful reference long after the formal course is completed.

It is designed for use as a book where a professional can look up the basic concepts that clarify new developments as they occur. This text is the outgrowth of courses that I have taught to IS majors and minors at Bentley University at both the undergraduate and graduate level for thirty years. Student responses to the material and the approach have generally been very enthusiastic.

Many students have returned after graduation to tell me that their knowledge in this area has directly contributed to their career development. Those familiar with previous editions will notice that the organization of the fourth edition has undergone substantial revision to reflect current technological practices and trends. In particular, it is no longer reasonable to discuss computers as individual units without also considering the networks that tie them together.

Computer networking is now covered thoroughly in its own section, and there is an increased emphasis on the integration and synergy of the various components of the computer system and on the system as a whole.

Still, the basic philosophy, organization, and approach remain essentially similar to those of the first edition, reflecting the unchanging nature of the underlying principles. This website is in compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyrights Act. Powered By : Afrodien. In particular, it is no longer reasonable to discuss computers as individual units without also considering the networks that tie them together Computer networking is now covered thoroughly in its own section, and there is an increased emphasis on the integration and synergy of the various components of the computer system and on the system as a whole.

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER HARDWARE

Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer , such as the case , [1] central processing unit CPU , monitor , mouse , keyboard , computer data storage , graphics card , sound card , speakers and motherboard. By contrast, software is the set of instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is " hard " or rigid with respect to changes, whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to change. Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware,it is typically directed by the software to execute and command or instructions. The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture , detailed in a paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers , a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter , a memory to store both data and instructions , external mass storage , and input and output mechanisms.


Hardware is the physical components of a computer system. e.g., a monitor, keyboard, mouse and the computer itself. James Tam. Basic Units Of Measurement. Bit.


Computer Hardware Books

The modern world offers lots of readily available online resources for learning. Wikipedia, Google, news sources, millions of Web sites and blogs, even YouTube, offer access to information in nearly any subject that triggers your curiosity and interest. Nonetheless, I continue to believe that for a deep understanding of something, nothing beats the integrated approach and focus of an old-fashioned printed-on-paper textbook. When I open a new book, in any subject, the first thing I want to know is what the book has to offer that makes it worth my while to read it.

COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

Computer hardware is any physical device used in or with your machine, whereas software is a collection of programming code installed on your computer's hard drive. In other words, hardware is something you can hold in your hand, whereas software cannot be held in your hand. You can touch hardware, but you cannot touch software.

Von-Neumann computer consists of two main components: memory and CPU. This concept has not yet been overcome and even the latest computers still come from von-Neumann architecture. An application software is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities. Applications may be connected with the computer and its system software or may be published separately, and may be coded as proprietary or open-source. Operating system is defined as a system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.


Any digital computer carries out five functions in gross terms: Computer Components. Any kind of computers consists of HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE.


Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software

Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware: Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer. Computer Hardware is any part of the computer that we can touch these parts. These are the primary electronic devices used to build up the computer. Computer Software: Software is a collection of instructions, procedures, documentation that performs different tasks on a computer system. The code can be machine-level code or the code written for an operating system.

Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. This is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of the computer. Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. However, most of a computer's hardware cannot be seen; in other words, it is not an external element of the computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by the computer's casing tower. A computer's hardware is comprised of many different parts, but perhaps the most important of these is the motherboard.

The term hardware refers to mechanical device that makes up computer. Examples of hardware are CPU, keyboard, mouse, hard disk, etc. Computer hardware is a collection of several components working together. Some parts are essential and others are added advantages. Computer hardware is made up of CPU and peripherals as shown in image below. A set of instructions that drives computer to do stipulated tasks is called a program. Software instructions are programmed in a computer language, translated into machine language, and executed by computer.

Want to know what hardware is in your computer? Become a computer pro with our quick guide to these essential components and their roles. Quite simply, computer hardware is the physical components that a computer system requires to function. It encompasses everything with a circuit board that operates within a PC or laptop; including the motherboard, graphics card, CPU Central Processing Unit , ventilation fans, webcam, power supply, and so on. Although the design of hardware differs between desktop PCs and laptops due to their differences in size, the same core components will be found in both.

What do flashlights, the British invasion, black cats, and seesaws have to do with computers? In CODE, they show us the ingenious ways we manipulate language and invent new means of communicating with each other. And through CODE, we see how this ingenuity and our very human compulsion to communicate have driven the technological innovations of the past two centuries.

Computer hardware

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When we think of a computer, we generally picture computer hardware: the monitor, the keyboard, and the electronic circuitry contained within the rectangular case. There is more to a computer than this, however. The missing element is software–the instructions that tell the computer how to operate the hardware.

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